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全国硕士研究生入学考试英语模拟试题(十五
http://www.21tx.com 2006年04月11日
1 Part 1 Structure and Vocabulary Section A Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (5 points)
1. There many be mistakes occasionally, but __________ all that, it is the best book on the subject in our library.
A. for B. after C. above D. except
2. Bob left home twenty minutes ago. It usually takes half an hour to get here by bus. He ______here soon.
A. should be B. must be C. should have been D. must have been
3. Miss Snow, a famous naturalist, is always in perfect sympathy ________me with regard to my love of nature and to my view on the preservation of wildlife.
A. for B. with C. to D. of
4. In our society it's nothing unusual to be confronted with failures but ______should we be discouraged on that account.
A. in on time B. by all means C. in no way D. in any conditions
5. The car driver, _________shoulders rested the entire blame for the accident, was sentenced to two years in prison.
A. whose B. on his C. of whose D on whose
6. The managing director deemed it vital that this matter _________ in detail at the meeting to be held next Friday.
A. should be discussed B. would be discussed C. should have been discussed D. must be discussed
7. On the last day of the Games, all the winners were honored by having a ring of holy olive leaves_________ on there heads.
A. placed B. to be placed C. being placed D. place
8. But one basic difference of opinions concerns the question of whether or not the city _______on their heads.
A. as such B. such as C. like such D. such that
9. He was a profound scholar and at the same time a respected teacher, so there was no man but ______ him.
A. respecting B. respected C. respect D. having respected
10. There in no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take,______ they can limit how much water you drink
A. much more than B. no more than C. no less than D. any more than
Section B Directions: Each of the following sentences has four underlined part marked A,B,C and D. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil(5 points) [注意:“]”前为划线内容]
11. (A) The North] Pole region receives more solar heat (B) in the ] summer months (C) as do] the tropics, (D) since ] the sun shines on it night and day.
12. The surface of the Arctic Ocean (A) should have been] warmer, were it (B) not for] its covering of ice, which (C) on the ] average is (D) a few ] yards thick.
13. The (A) sales] volume of the new products (B) has been on] the rise (C) though] the manager advertised (D) them] on TV.
14. In any case the car isn't big enough (A) getting] all of us in and (B) camping] equipment as well, so we simply must find (C) ourselves] a nice hotel where the children can (D) put up for] the night.
15. (A)Lots] of empty bottles (B) were found] under the old man's bed. He (C) must have done] nothing but (D) drinking].
16. John didn't get round (A) to attending] the panel discussion last night BECause he (B)must have been] fully occupied (C)in] touching up his research paper which was to be published on (D)the] Wednesday following.
17. The domestic self-sufficiency that is (A) so] characteristic (B) to] American suburbs is (C)not nearly] so common in (D) other] societies.
18. Most people know (A) that] it is like to have their blood pressure (B)taken], but (C)few] understand the meanings of the numbers (D)used to record] blood pressure.
19. A book may be compared (A)to] your neighbor, if it (B)be] good, it (C)can last] too long, if bad you cannot get rid of it (D)too] early.
20. The suggestions (A)come up with] by the Senator sought to place GREater restrictions (B)on] the used and (C)copying] of digital information than (D)exists] in traditional media.
Section C Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)
21. He bought the land with a _______ to building a summer home there.
A. goal B. view C. purpose D. reason
22. Most people find they can ______ conversation and concentrate on watching boby language for only about 30 seconds at a time.
A. break down B. stick to C. shut out D. ring off
23. Of course I'll play the piano at the party but I'm a little ____________.
A. out of use B. out of reach C. out of place D. out of practice
24. In some part of the world the indigenous(土著的) population has been completely ________.
A. wiped out B. shown off C. run out D. picked out
25. ______the invention of the steam engine, most forms of transport were horse-drawn.
A. In regard to B. Prior to C. In addition to D. In contrast to
26. You must pay import ______ on certain goods brought into this country.
A. fees B charges C. duties D. allowances
27. The question of what causes us to dream still has scientists _____ their heads.
A. spreading B. scraping C. stretching D. scratching
28. The speech of our people reflects the extent ________ which we protect ourselves from the outside world.
A. on B. to C. in D. with
29. How could Hitler's vast operation of highly-organized mass murder, which was not ______ to Jews, come about?
A. conformed B. complied C. confined D. consented
30. Ordinary writing today is radically worse than it has ever been in the past, because it rarely _______us any pleasure.
A. furnishes B. offers C. presents D. affords
31. Peter did _______ well in the examination because he had been working very hard.
A. exclusively B. excessively C. extensively D. exceptionally
32. These excursions will give you an even deeper ______ into our language and culture.
A. investigation B. inquiry C. research D. insight
33. That battle is of great significance when viewed in the _____ of the progress of the war.
A. notion B. perspective C. concept D. OutLook
34. The effects noted by these fathers are different form the effects on the society _______.
A. at large B. above all C. in detail D. in practice
35. Some of the members demanded to know why they had been kept in _____ of the true facts until they reached the present critical stage.
A. negligence B. touch C. ignorance D. suspicion
36. In the past most foresters have been men, but today, the number of women _____ this field is climbing.
A. engaging B dedicating C. registering D. pursuing
37. Bob assured his boss that he would _______ all his energies in doing this new job.
A. call for B. call off C. call forth D. call on
38.if you don't understand the mew vocabulary you could ask your teacher to explain it or, _______, you could look it up in a dictionary.
A. alternatively B. Consequently C. Immediately D. Incidentally
39.If either of you had been able to _______ your anger, the fight would have been avoided.
A. keep back B. Hold back C. Give off D. Work up
40. Now that you have moved into a new house, you must choose furniture that is _______ with its style.
A. appropriate B. Suitable C. Agreeable D. Consistent
Part II Cloze Test Directions: For each numbered bland in the following passage, there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET I by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (10 points)
One day drought may be a thing of the past at least in coastal cities. Vast areas of desert throughout the world may for the first time come to life and -41-millions of hectares of land where now nothing grows. By the end of this century this may not be --42-speculation. Scientists are already looking into the possibility of using some of the -43-ice in the arctic and Antarctic. In these regions there are vast ice-caps -44-by snow that has fallen over the past 50,000 years. Layer upon layer of deep snow means that, --45-melted, the snow water would be pure, not salty -46-sea-ice would be. There is so much -47-pure water here that it would need only a fraction of it to turn much of the desert or poorly irrigated parts of the world into rich farmland. And -48-useful packages it would come in! It would be possible to cut off a bit of ice and transport it! -49--, perhaps a passing iceberg could be captured. They are always -50-from the main caps and floating around, pushed by currents, until they eventually melt and are wasted
41. A. protect B. prompt C. provide D. promote
42. A. mere B. fair C. general D. excessive
43. A. possible B. available C. desirable D. preferable
44.A.established B. founded C. formed D. emerged
45. A. when B. unless C. though D. since
46. A. that B. as C. which D. because
47. A. essential B. additional C. abundant D. potential
48. A. how B. what C. where D. whether
49. A. Practically B. Predominantly C. Subsequently D. Alternatively
50. A. breaking away B. dropping off C. pulling down D. getting off
Part III Reading Comprehension Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked A, B, C and D. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer on ANSWER SHEET I by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (40 points)
1 What should you think about in trying to find your career? You are probably better at some school subjects than others. These may show strengths that you can use in your work. A boy who is good at mathematics can use that in an engineering career. A girl who spells well and likes English may be good at office work, So it is important to know the subjects you do well in at school. On the other hand, you may not have any specially strong or weak subjects but your records show a general satisfactory standard. Although not all subjects can be used directly in a job, they may have indirect value. A knowledge of history is not required for most jobs but if history is one of your good subjects you will have learned to remember facts and details. This is an ability that can be useful in many jobs.
Your school may have taught you skills, such as typing or technical drawing, which you can use in your work. You may be good at metal work or cookery and look for a job where you can improve these skills.
If you have had a part-time job on Saturdays or in the summer, think what you gained from it. If nothing else, you may have learned how to get to work on time, to follow instructions and to get on with older workers. You may have learned to give correct change in a shop, for example. Just as important, you may become interested in a particular industry or career y seeing it from the inside in a part-time job.
Facing your weak points is also part of knowing yourself. You may be all thumbs when you handle tools; perhaps you are a poor speller or cannot add up a column of figures. It is bitter to face any weaknesses than to pretend they do not exist. Your school record, for instance, may not be too good, yet it is an important part of your background. You should not be apologetic about it but instead recognize that you will have a chance of a fresh start at work.
51. Which of the following best sums up the first paragraph?
A. The importance of doing well at school.
B. Using school performance to help to choose a career.
C. The importance of being good at all subjects.
D. The indirect value of school work.
52. The writer thinks that for a student to have a part-time job is probably _______.
A. a waste of time that could have been spent on study
B. useful for his future work
C. a good way to earn extra money
D. a good way to find out his weak points
53. According to the passage, if a student's school record is not good, he _______.
A. will be a complete failure in his future work
B. will not be able to find a suitable job
C. will regret not having worked harder at school
D. may do well in his future work
54. The whole passage centers on _______.
A. choosing a career according to what one is skilled in
B. acquiring knowledge by working hard at school
C. finding one's strong and weak points
D. developing one's abilities useful in school work
2 An industrial society, especially one as concentrated as that of Britain, is heavily dependent on certain essential services: for instance. Electricity supply, water, rail and road transport, the harbors. The area of dependency has widened to include removing rubbish, hospital and ambulance services, and, as the economy develops, central computer and information services as well, If any of these services ceases to operate, the whole economic system is in danger.
It if this economic interdependency of the economic system which makes the power of trade unions such an important issue. Single trade unions have the ability to cut off many countries' economic blood supply. This can happen more easily in Britain than in some other countries, in part because the labor Force is highly organized. About 55 per cent of British workers belong to unions, compared to under a quarter in the United States. For historical reasons, Britain's unions have tended to develop along trade and occupational lines, rather than on an industry-by-industry basis, which makes a wages policy, democracy in industry and the improvement of procedure for fixing wage levels difficult to achieve.
There are considerable strains and tensions in the trade union movement, some of them arising from their outdated and inefficient structure. Some unions have lost many members because of their industrial changes. Others are involved in arguments about who should represent workers in now trades. Unions for skilled trades are separate from general unions, which means that different levels of wages for certain jobs are often a source of bad feeling between unions. In traditional trades which are being pushed out of existence by advancing technologies, unions can fight for their members' disappointing jobs to the point where the jobs of other union members are threatened or destroyed. The printing of newspapers both in the United States and in Britain has frequently been halted by the efforts of printers to hold on to their traditional highly-paid jobs.
Trade unions have problems of internal communication just as managers in companies do, problems which multiply in very large unions or in those which bring workers in very different industries together into a single general union. Some trade union officials have to be re-elected regularly' others are elected, or even appointed, for life. Trade union officials have to work with a system of "shop stewards" in many unions, "shop stewards" being workers elected by other workers as their representatives at factory or works level.
55. Why is the question of trade union power important in Britain?
A. The economy is very interdependent.
B. Unions have been established for a long time.
C. There are more unions in Britain than elsewhere.
D. There are many essential services.
56. Because of their out-of-date organization some unions find it difficult to _______.
A. get new members to join
B. change as industries change
C. learn new technologies
D. bargain for high enough wages
57. Disagreements arise between unions because some of them _______.
A. try to win over members of other unions
B. ignore agreements
C. protect their own members at the expense of others
D. take over other unions' jobs
58. What basic problems are we told most trade unions face?
A. They are equal in size of influence.
B. They are less powerful than employers' organizations.
C. They don't have enough members.
D. They are not organized efficiently.
3 A cancer-causing factor in our environment is the light of the sun. The ultraviolet radiation story began in Germany in 1894, when scientists empresses their belief that too much exposure to sunlight was related to skin cancer. In 1928, English scientists succeeded in producing skin cancer in experimental animals exposed to bright sunlight.
The cancer-producing effects of the ultraviolet rays of sunlight seem to be limited to the skin. It has been noticed that the incidence of skin cancer is highest in the southern and western parts of the United States and lowest in the North. Furthermore, skin cancer occurs more often among people who work outdoors, such as sailors and farmers, than among people who can guard themselves against too much exposure to the sun.
The color of the skin is another factor. Cancer of the skin is most common among fair-skinned people. It is much less common among black people and others with dark skin. Related to cancer-causing effects of sunlight is the discovery of the dangers of ionizing radiation from radium and X-rays. This discovery was actually made on human beings. Early radiologists developed dryness, ulcers, and eventually, cancer of their hands. In 1910, a French worker produced skin cancer in a rat following application of radium to the skin.
Ionizing radiation can cause several forms of cancer in man and animals. Radiologists and others exposed to increased doses of radiation are more likely to develop leukemia than are people who are not so exposed. The people of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who lived through the exposure to atomic bombs have been studied carefully by scientists. Information obtained in the course of their investigations leaves no doubt that a single radiation exposure at high doses can produce leukemia in humans.
Radium salts, which have been found to build up in bones, give ride to cancers of the bone. A historical tragedy was the deaths from bone cancer of factory women who pointed with their lips the brushes they used in painting watch dials with radium.
Man-made sources of ionizing radiation are definitely one of the more serious possible cancer-producing hazards. One of the key issues involved is the question of dose. Does a radiation dose have to reach some specific level before becoming dangerous, or does any amount of radiation increase one's risk of cancer? This problem, of course also exists in considering cancer-producing chemicals.
59. Cancer of the skin is most common among people who have ______.
A. black skin B. blue eyes C. dark hair D. a fair complexion[肤色]
60. The author mentions factory women who died of cancer because they ________.
A. inhaled large amounts of asbestos[石棉]fiber
B. consumed small amounts of radium
C. were exposed to X-rays
D. suffered a lot from ultraviolet radiation
61. Most of the early research on cancer was conducted in _________.
A. the United Stated
B. Japan
C. other countries than Germany and Britain
D. European countries
62. Scientists have not yet determined ____________.
A. the level at which radiation becomes dangerous
B. the danger of man-made radiation
C. which occupations involve the greater cancer risk
D. whether the ultraviolet radiation gives rise to cancers
4 Air travel is such an everyday experience these days that we are not surprised when we read about a politician having talked with the Japanese Prime Minister one day, having to attend a conference in Australia the following morning and having to be off at midday to sign a trade agreement in Bangkok. But frequent long distance flying can be so tiring can be so tiring that the traveler begins to feel his brain is in one country, his digestion in another and his powers of concentration nowhere----in shout, he hardly knows where he is.
The fatigue we normally experience after a long journey is accentuated when fly from east to west or vice versa because we cross time zones. Air travel is so quick nowadays that we can leave London after breakfast and be in New York in eight hours. Yet what really disturbs us is that when we arrive it is only lunch time, but we have already had lunch on the plane and are expecting dinner.
Doctors say that since air travelers are in no condition to work after crossing a number of time zones, they should go straight to bed on arrival. Airline pilots, in fact, whose experience is so obviously relevant that it ought to serve as a guide, often live by their own watches, ignoring local time, and have breakfast at midnight if necessary. They have far less reason to worry about their health than executives because they are used to flying and are physically fit.
Businessmen who go on long-distance flights, however, are usually out for promotion and flattered to have been chosen because it adds to their status and prestige in the firm. They are lucky if the company is enlightened enough to insist on their taking the doctor's advice and resting for a day before working. Sometimes the managing director is such an energetic character that he expects everyone to be as fit as he is. As he has never felt any ill effects after flying himself, the schedule he lays down is so exacting [making great demands, severe, strict] that the employee is too exhausted to carry it out satisfactorily. He must either go straight to an important meeting as soon as his plane touches down or else return as soon as the meeting is over to report to his boss. Dynamic tycoons[企业界巨头] of this type often do not realize how disastrous this policy may be for the man's health and the company's reputation.
63. According to the second paragraph, which of the following statements is true?
A. We experience fatigue on flights only when we cross time zones.
B. We experience fatigue on a long flight when we fly towards the west.
C. Crossing time zones increases the fatigue we experience on a long flight.
D. Air travel is so quick nowadays that we experience fatigue on a flight.
64. After long-distance flights, pilots _____ .
A. always go straight to bed
B. find it wisest to take no notice of local time
C. have breakfast
D. Worry about their health.
65. If a managing director is energetic he frequently _____.
A. refuses to allow his employees to lie down
B. makes his employees attend classed to keep fit
C. expects too much of his employees
D. has an important meeting with his employees on a flight
66. In the last paragraph, it is implied but not directly said that the employees who go on long-distance flights _______.
A. are obviously unkindly treated
B. are not given time to make friends on meeting abroad
C. may make serious mistakes because of tiredness
D. may send in their resignations
5 A lot of people believe that television has a harmful effect on children. A few tears ago, the same criticisms were made of the cinema, But although child psychologists have spent a great deal of time studying this problem, there is not much evidence that television brings about juvenile delinquency[青少年犯罪].
Few people in the modern world share the views of parents a hundred years ago. In those days, writers for children carefully avoided any reference to sex in their books but had no inhibitions about including scenes of violence.
These days children are often brought up to thin freely about sex but violence is discouraged. Nevertheless, television companies receive a large number of letters every week complaining about programmes with adult themes being shown at times when a few young children may be awake. Strangely enough, the parents who complain about these programmes see no harm in cartoon films for children in which the villain[坏人], usually either an animal or a monster, but in some cases a human being, suffers one cruel punishment after another.
The fact is that, as every parent knows, different things frighten different children. One child can read a ghost story without having bad dreams while another cannot bear to have the book in his bedroom. In the same way, there is little consistency about the things that terrify adults. Almost everyone has an irrational private fear but while some of us cannot stand the sight of spiders, for example, others are frightened of snakes or rats.
The evidence collected suggests, however, that neither the subject nor the action in itself frightens children. The context in which cruelty or violence occurs is much more important. A good guide to what is psychological healthy for a small child is therefore provided by a television series in which a boy and a girl are supposed to be exploring distant planets with their parents. In each story, they encounter strange monsters and find themselves in dangerous situations but the parents are reassuring and sensible, as a child's parents should be in real life. there is an adult character who is a coward and a liar, but both the children are brave and, of course, every story ends happily.
Some people think children should be exposed to the problems of real life as soon as possible, but they cannot help seeing these through news programmes. When they are being entertained, the healthiest atmosphere is one in which the hero and heroine are children like themselves who behave naturally and confidently in any situation.
67. According to the first paragraph, child psychologists ________.
A. believe that TV causes juvenile delinquency
B. cannot find much evidence of a direct connection between TV and juvenile delinquency
C. think that TV programmes are completely harmless
D. don't doubt that television has an instructive effect on children
68. Parents who write letters of complaint to television companies _____.
A. do not like adult programmes
B. are afraid their children will be harmed by seeing adult programmes
C. think cartoon films are too violent
D. are sure that television programmes are harmful to children
69. According to the author, which statement is true?
A. Children who read ghost stories have bad dreams.
C. All adults are afraid either of spiders or of snakes.
D. Most people are frightened of the same thing.
70. The television series mentioned is healthy because _____.
A. the children are shown as brave and confident
B. the only bad character in an adult
C. what is shown in it is quite different from that in real life
D. when the children are in trouble their parents can do nothing about it
Part IV English-Chinese Translation Directions: Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)
71) To avoid the various foolish opinions to which mankind is liable, no superhuman genius is required. A few simple rules will keep you, not from all error, but from silly error.] If the matter is one that can be settled by observation, make the observation yourself. Aristotle could have avoided the mistake of thinking that women have fewer teeth than men, by the simple device of asking Mrs. Aristotle to keep her mouth open while he counted. He did not do so because he thought he knew. Thinking that you know when in fact you don't is a fatal mistake, to which we are all liable. Many matters, however, are less easily brought to the test of experience.72) If, like most of mankind, you have strong convictions on many such matters, there are ways in which you can make yourself aware of your own prejudice. If an opinion contrary to your own makes you angry, that is a sign that you subconsciously are aware of having no good reason for thinking as you do.] If someone maintains that two are five, or that Iceland is on the equator, you fell pity rather than anger, unless you know little of arithmetic or geography that his opinion shakes your own contrary conviction. The most savage controversies are those about matters as to which there is no good evidence either way. 73) So whenever you find yourself getting angry about a difference of opinion, be on your guard; you will probably find, on examination, that your belief is going beyond what the evidence justifies.] For those who have enough psychological imagination, it is a good plann to imagine an argument with a person having a different opinion.74) This has one advantage, and only one, as compared with actual conversation with opponents; this one advantage is that the method is not subject to the same limitations of time and space.] Mahatma Gandhi(圣雄甘地)considered it unfortunate to have railways and steamboats and machinery; he would have liked to undo the whole of the industrial revolutions. You may never have an opportunity off actually meeting anyone who holds this opinion, because in Western countries most people take the advantage of modern technology for granted. 75) But if you want to make sure that you are right in agreeing with the prevailing opinion, you will find it a good plan to test the arguments that occur to you by considering what Gandhi might have said in refutation of them.] have sometimes been led actually to change my mind as a result of this kind of imaginary dialogue. Furthermore, I have frequently found myself growing more agreeable through realizing the possible reasonableness of a hypothetical opponent.
Part V Writing (15 points) Directions: A. Study the following set of bar charts pictures carefully and write a composition of no less than 150 words. B. Your composition must be written on the SNSWER SHEET 2. C. Your composition should cover most of the information provided and meet the requirements below:
1. 根据提示概述下列4图;
2. 分析中国钢产量迅速增长的原因;
3. 预测世界刚产量的前景。
1996 年世界钢产量排行前四位的国家 (单位: 万吨)
10035 9877 9440 4907
_____
| | ____
| | | | ____
| | | | | | ____
| | | | | | | | |
____ | |___ ||___ | |___ |
中国 日本 美国 俄罗斯
提示: 欧洲经济委员会公布了最新数字: 去年世界钢产量约为7.5亿吨,比1995年下降0.2%。中国去年钢产量突破一亿吨大关, 从而超过日本成为世界上最大的产钢国。

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