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考研英语——模拟试题[6]
http://www.21tx.com 2006年04月11日
Part I Structure and Vocabulary
Section A
Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences,there are 4 choices marked A,B,C and D)Choose the one that best completes the sentence.Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets.(5 points)
1. These two construction groups worked at remarkable speed,each _____ to cover a GREater distance than the other.
A)tried
B)trying
C)tries
D)to try
2. I′d rather you _____ there in person, if you don′t mind.
A)went
B)go
C)would go
D)will go
3. The barrier of language keeps many scientists in prolonged ignorance of work of immediate importance to them _____ at present in many countries.
A)doing
B)to be done
C)having done
D)being done
4. A topic sentence that is too narrow leaves little left _____ in the rest of the paragraph.
A)to say
B)to be said
C)saying
D)to have said
5. When her report came,she found that she had received three “D′s”and two“C′s”.Soon she began to recall some of the errors she _____ on her test.
A)should have made
B)might have made
C)would have made
D)could make
6. A country _____ inflation exists,is a place that has increased the amount of money in circulation,causing the value of money to fall and price to rise
A)whose
B)that
C)which
D)where.
7. The first NASA suborbital space flight was made by _____ .
A)A trained carefully African chimpanzee
B)a carefully trained African chimpanzee
C)carefully trained African chimpanzee
D)an African carefully trained chimpanzee
8. Only after years of intensive work _____ the riddle of DNA)
A)and the scientists solved
B)but the scientists solved
C)did the scientists solve
D)the scientists solved
9. For centuries,until the first Americans reached the moon,men speculated as to _____ .
A)What looked like the satellite′s other side
B)what the satellite′s other side looks like
C)what did the satellite′s other side look like
D)what the satellite′s other side look like
10. _____ a reservation,it will be impossible to get a hotel room this weekend BECause of the Olimpic Games.
A)If you have
B)Unless you have
C)Unless having
D)Without you have
Section B
Directions:Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked A,B,C and D)Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets.(5 points)
11. Never before I have seen (A) anyone who has (B) the skill Tom has (C) when he fixes (D) engines.
12. The more the relative humidity reading (A) rises, (B) the worst (C) heat affects (D) us.
13. Chemical fertilizers are used (A) mainly (B) to enrich the soil (C) and increasing (D) yield.
14. Not only the movements of the earth are (A) important to you,but what (B) the earth is made of also (C) governs what you do. (D)
15. Using (A) a microwave oven,the hamburger was fully cooked (B) in (C) less than (D) three minutes.
16. Married couples (A) with children (B) often rent the cottages (C) by the seaside for (D) the summer holidays.
17. Neither (A) the students nor (B) the teacher are allowed (C) to smoke in class (D) .
18. Professor Nancy told her class that one of the best ways to improve (A) listening comprehension skills is (B) to watch (C) television, especially (D) news programs and documentaries.
19. The poor man, having been (A) brutally beated by (B) the police,cried out (C) in pains (D) .
20. Though people are concerned with (A) the problem of energy sources,they must (B) not fail recognizing (C) the need for (D) environmental protection.
Section C
Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences,there are 4 choices marked A,B,C and D) Choose the one that best completes the sentence.Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in brackets.(10 points)
21. Young scientists cannot realize _____ soon that existing scientific knowledge is not nearly so complete,certain and unalterable as many textbooks seems to imply.
A)so
B)very
C)too
D)such
22. If you push kard on the world, the world will push back on you; if you touch the world gently, the world will touch you gently _____ .
A)in return
B)in the long run
C)in turn
D)in place
23. A good teacher ought to know how to _____ noisy children.
A)tackle with
B)deal with
C)handle with
D)cope
24. Of the planetary systems in the sky,many must be entirely lifeless,and in others life,if it exists _____ ,is probably limited to a few of the planets.
A)after all
B)at all
C)in all
D)not at all
25. In this area,the amount of money spent on health care for animals will _____ the amount spent on human health care in just 10 years.
A)equal
B)equal to
C)equivalent
D)equality
26. The different physical characteristics of each race of people in this world have developed over thousand of years,usually _____ adaptation to climate.
A)as a result
B)as a result of
C)with the result
D)as result of
27. A born teacher must have a natural talent for using knowledge to _____ the curiosity and imagination of students.
A)awake
B)await
C)aware
D)award
28. People of the TV generation are often _____ to watch TV a great deal.
A)inclined
B)declined
C)included
D)excluded
29. The general effect of the irradiation on the newborn is less obvious,but _____ serious.
A)not the less
B)much less
C)none the less
D)no the less
30. She knew she had to start _____ her sense of loss,yet she thought of him constantly.
A)getting about
B)getting over
C)getting at
D)getting to
31. Because he never tells a lie,Jim makes many enemies.People are often _____ by the truth.
A)offended
B)defended
C)defeated
D)defined
32. It is a _____ to tip a waiter.
A)custom
B)costume
C)habit
D)hobby
33. With the rapid growth of the population and the rapid decrease in available natural _____ to support life on earth,all people are in danger.
A)sources
B)resources
C)matters
D)materials
34. I don′t know it′s of much use discussing the matter with him now,but I′ll see him _____ .
A)at any rate
B)in the event
C)in case
D)in the least
35. Cut off by the heavy snow, the people there were forced to _____ food for three days.
A)go in for
B)go over
C)go without
D)go out
36. Jack was worried we would miss the plane,but it was delayed,so we were still _____ .
A)on time
B)in time
C)at times
D)some time
37. Because no mutually acceptable agenda could be arrived at ,the talks were eventually _____ .
A)called out
B)called at
C)called off
D)called on
38. In this secret code each number _____ a letter or the alphabet.
A)stands by
B)stands out
C)stands up to
D)stands for
39. It was clear that that lazy girl student would never _____ his professor′s expectation.
A)live through
B)live on
C)live up to
D)live by
40. We′ll have another cup of coffee together _____ .
A)in three weeks′s time
B)for three weeks
C)until three weeks ago
D)three weeks later
Part Ⅱ Cloze Test
Directions: For each numbered blank in the following passage,there are four choices marked A,B,C and D)Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets.(10 points)
Adolph Hitler came into power in Germany.He and his Nazis disliked (41) .They also hated Jews and began to attack them.There was no respect even for Albert Einstein,who only wanted to (42) problems beyond time and space and politics.He was expelled from the Academy of Sciences;his house was (43) weapons;he lost his job as a professor;all his property was seized;and finally his Germany citizenship was (44) .He became a man without a country.
(45) Germany, Einstein went first to France,then to Belgium,and then to England.There he received an invitation from the U.S.A) The Institute for Advanced Study at PrinCETon,New Jersey, (46) him a lifetime professorship. He accepted but asked for so small a salary that to maintain its own standards the Institute had to raise it.
Such behaviour was typical of Einstein.He had (47) concern for money,though he (48) extremely wealthy.He once (49) an offer of $ 1 000 a minute to speak on the radio. On another occasion he was observed (50) a check for $ 1 500 from the Rockefeller Foundation as a bookmark. Then he lost the book!
41. A)intellectuals
B)intelligence
C)intelligent
D)intellectuality
42. A)think over
B)think out
C)think up
D)think of
43. A)researched
B)searched for
C)looked for
D)sought for
44. A)taken up
B)taken down
C)taken off
D)taken away
45. A)Fleeing
B)Freeing
C)Escaping
D)Running away
46. A)afforded
B)offered
C)gave
D)won
47. A)a little
B)little
C)small
D)a small
48. A)could have been
B)would have been
C)could be
D)ought to be
49. A)turned out
B)turned up
C)turned down
D)turned away
50. A)using
B)used
C)to use
D)use
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension
Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions.For each question there are four answers marked A,B,C and D) Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions.Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets.(40 points)
Passage 1

The food we eat seems to have profound effects on our health.Although science has made enormous steps in making food more fit to eat ,it has ,at the same time,made many foods unfit to eat .Some research has shown that perhaps eighty percent of all human illnesses are related to diet and forty percent of cancer is related to the diet as well,especially cancer of the colon.Different cultures are more prone to contract certain illnesses because of the food that is characteristic in these cultures.That food is related to illness is not a new discovery.In 1945,government researchers realized that nitrates and nitrites,commonly used to preserve color in meats,and other food additives,caused cancer.Yet,these carcinogenic additives remain in our food,and it becomes more difficult all the time to know which things on the packaging labels of processed food are helpful or harmful.The additives which we eat are not all so direct.Farmers often give penicillin to beef and poultry,and because of this,penicillin has been found in the milk of treated cows.Sometimes similar drugs are administered to animals not for medicinal purposes,but for financial reasons.The farmers are simply trying to fatten the animals in order to obtain a higher price on the market.Although the Food and Drug Administation(FDA)has tried repeatedly to control these procedures,the practices continue.
51. How has science done a disservice to mankind?
A)Because of science,disease caused by contaminated food has been virtually eradicated.
B)It has caused a lack of information concerning the value of food.
C)As a result of scientific intervention,some potentially harmful substances have been added to our food.
D)The scientists have preserved the color of meats,but not of vegetables.
52. What are nitrates used for?
A)They preserve flavor in packaged foods.
B)They preserve the color of meats.
C)They are the objects of research.
D)They cause animals to become fatter.
53. What does FDA mean?
A)Food Direct Additives.
B)Final Difficult Analysis.
C)Food and Drug Administration.
D)Federal Dairy Additives.
54. The word“carcinogenic”means most nearly the same as _____ .
A)troublemaking
C)moneymaking
B)colorretaining
D)cancercausing
55. Which of the following statements is not true?
A)Drugs are always given to animals for medical reasons.
B)Some of the additives in our food are added to the food itself and some are given to the living animals.
C)Researchers have known about the potential hazards of food additives for over thirtyfive years.
D)Food may cause forty percent of cancer in the world.
Passage 2

There are two common explanations for the origin of tipping. The Oxford English Dictionary says tip was seventeenthcentury underworld slang for “give”-as in“Tip me your wallet or your life.” Opponents of tipping will probably prefer this explanation, since it suggests the practice was originally a form of theft. A less reputable, but nonetheless charming, explanation is that in Renaissance coffeehouses, boxes were set near the door, into which customers could drop gratuities尝金:these boxes, according to the story, bore the legent “To Insure Promptitude,” which was ultimeately shortened to TIP. Whether it was an enterprising serving woman or a boss with his eye on depressing wages who first thought up the idea, the story does not say.
Tipping became common in England by the middle of the eighteenth century.Because it is ill suited to a country without an established servant class, it did not catch on in America until after the Civil War, when former slaveholders suddenly found themselves having to pay the help and when newrich Northern industrialists adopted the European fashion as part of conspicuous(明显的) display. By the turn of the century, we had made the custom our own, and the stereotypical American “big tipper” was on his way.
Today, although the lines between protection money, bribery, and thanks for services rendered remain as fuzzy as ever, tipping has become universal, not least because, in an increasingly uncertain economy, it provides the growing service class with income that is at least as reliable as wages and that is less subject to tax review. Not surprisingly, government officials are among the few diehards who still question the tipping system. They have a point too. Tippers International estimates that U.S.workers rake in about $ 5 billion a year in tips. The taxes on the amount, if all of it were reported, could make the down(现付的) payment on a hammer for the Pentagon.
56. In the seventeenth century, tip was probably a word used by
A)lawbreakers.
B)customers.
C)waitresses.
D)coffeehouse hosses.
57. Tipping did not become popular in U.S.until after the Civil War because
A)the country was void of a servant class.
B)former slaveholders did not want to pay the help.
C)Northern industrialists refused to adopt the European fashion.
D)tipping was contradictory to the American custom.
58. Tipping is universally accepted mainly because.
A)it is an easy way to make money.
B)it ensures people a good and prompt service.
C)it enables the service class to be free from taxes.
D)it supplies the service class with a sort of reliable income.
59. Which of the of following words can best describe the government officials attitudes towards the tipping system?
A)Positive
B)Negative
C)Skeptical
D)Indifferent
60. The passage is about
A)the origin of tipping
B)the practice of tipping in U.S.
C)the popularity of tipping.
D)the shaping of the tipping system.
Passage 3

Since World War Ⅱ, all nations of the world have shown a great interest in economic growth. Most of them have shown a percentage increase of their GNP each year ,the highly developed nations having shown the greatest growth rates.However,in spite of their growth rates,these nations have been plagued by two serious problems:inflation and unemployment. At one time economists believed that there was a tradeoff between inflation and employment: that generally prices would rise faster than wages and employment, but that these would quickly follow,and that a fall in wages would bring a fall in prices. However,for some time the Western economies have been suffering from both continually increasing inflation and continually increasing unemployment.
Other problems have accompanied technological development. These include the pollution of water and air by the wastes of factories, dumped solid wastes from many technical operations (including atomic ones),and the deterioration of workers′ health in many factories, mines and other industrial operations. The concentration of populations in cities has given rise to many problems of housing, educational and medical services, and higher and higher crime rates.These are the social costs of economic growth which must be met by the society.Yet the costs for meeting these problems is not computed in the GNP.
Technological development and the economic growth dependent on it have brought about great changes in the economic systems which were described by the classical economists.Production has been concentrated into a few large corporations,such as the oil companies and the automobile producers. At the same time, it has been the practice for large companies to buy whole or controlling interests in unrelated areas of production:aircraft companies which own radio and television stations or even book publishing companies,for example.Some of these large corporations are frequently operating in many countries of the world;they are then called multinational companies. These practices have centralised economic activity,completely destroying the free market which was the basis of classical economics,and have greatly changed the concept of free trade.This development in the Western world has brought its economic systems closer to the command market systems of the USSR(Russia)and the Eastern European countries.In both the Western and Eastern economic systems there has been a greater centralisation of economic production, which has brought about more confusing complexity in the relationships of economic activities. At the same time larger bureaucracies, both in privately owned corporations and in governments,have become necessary to cope with the increasingly complex problems.
61. What serious economic problems have troubled developing economies, in spite of the growth of the GNP in these economies?
A)Inflation and unemployment.
B)Population growth.
C)A fall in prices.
D)All of the above.
62. Economic growth is dependent on _____ .
A)technological development
B)high employment
C)high prices
D)a yearly percentage increase of the GNP
63. One of the following is not a problem of technological development _____ .
A)pollution of water and air
B)an increase in the general standard of living
C)a deterioration in workers′ health in many industrial operations
D)urban problems of housing,higher crime rates,etc.
64. What changes in the market economic systems have brought them closer to the command market systems?
A)The centralisation of economic activity in a few large corporations.
B)The destruction of the classical free market.
C)The development of large bureaucracies,both private and governmental.
D)All of the above.
65. Which of the following suggested solutions to the problems of economic growth have been successful?
A)Population control.
B)Substitution of resources.
C)The production of energy from external sources.
D)None of the above.
Passage 4

When they advise your kids to “get an education”if you want to raise your income, they tell you only half the truth. What they really mean is to get just enough education to provide manpower for your society, but not so much that you prove an embarrassment to your society.
Get a high school diploma, at least.Without that,you are occupatioally dead ,unless your name happens to be George Bernard Shaw or Thomas Alva Edison and you can successfully drop out in trade school.
Get a college degree, if possible.With a B)A),you are on the launching pad. But now you have to start to put on the brades.If you go for a master′s degree, make sure it is an M.B)A),and only from a firstrate university.Beyond this,the famous law of diminishing returns begins to take effect.
Do you know,for instance,that longhaul truck drivers earn more a year than full professors? Yes ,the average 1977 salary for those truckers was 24 000 while the full professors managed to average just 23 930.
A Ph. D is the highest degree you can get, but except in a few specialized fields such as physics or chemistry,where the degree can quickly be turned to industrial or commerical purposes,you are facing a dim future.There are more Ph.D)s unemployed or underemployed in this country than in any other part of the world by far.
If you become a doctor of philosophy in English or history or anthropology or political science or language or —worst of all—in philosophy,you run the risk of becoming overeducated for our national demands.Not for our needs,mind you ,but for our demands.
Thousands of Ph.D)s are selling shoes,driving cabs,waiting on tables and filling out fruitless applications month after month.And then maybe taking a job in some high school or backwater college that pays much less than the janitor earns.
You can equate the level of income with the level of education only so far. Far enough, that is ,to make you useful to the gross national product, but not so far that nobody can turn much of a profit on you.
66. According to the writer, what the society expects of education is to turn out people who _____ .
A)will not be a shame to the educational system
B)will become loyal citizens
C)can take care of themselves
D)can meet the demands of society as a source of manpower
67. If you are as gifted as Bernard Shaw or Edison, _____ .
A)you can get a high school diploma without difficulty
B)you will be successful in a grade school
C)you can be professionally successful without a diploma
D)the least you should do is to get a diploma
68. Ph.D)s are most likely to _____ .
A)have difficulties getting properly employed
B)be employed in the fields of commerce or industry
C)have to fill out application forms month after month for others.
D)work in schools or colleges with low pay
69. The nation is only interested in people _____ .
A)with diplomas
B)specialized in physics and chemistry
C)valuable to the gross national product
D)both A and C
70. The writer is above all critical of _____ .
A)the educational system
B)Ph.D)s
C)society
D)employers
Part Ⅳ EnglishChinese Translation
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.(15 points)
(71)Good evening. Chinese President Jiang Zemin and his American counterpart Bill Clinton have acknowledged their political differences, but they wrapped up their historic summit emphasizing the importance of their common interest. As Mark Thun reports from Washington, the two leaders hammered out(尽力达成) agreements on a number of issues, although human rights remains a sticking point.(读判中的一大障碍)
(72) The two sides came to agreements over plenty of items, which could shake the world for a long time to come. The most important is probably the highlevel dialogues and consultations.(磋商) The Presidents will visit each other regularly, there will be a WashingtonBeijing communications link for direct contact, and there will be regular exchanges or visits by cabinet and other officials on political and security issues.(73) On nuclear cooperation, Mr. Clinton promises the sale of nuclear technology to China for peaceful use something not possible now with an American ban after the 1989 Tiananmen crackdown(天安门事件). The two countries have agreed to strengthen military maritime safety. And Beijing and Washington are both working towards China′s entry into the WTO(世贸组织) with China aiming to make substantial tariff reductions (大幅度降低关税). There will be more cooperation to clean up the environment, to stop nuclear weapons proliferation(扩散),and to cooperate in the field of law.(74) Taiwan is considered the most important issue, but there′s little breakthrough here. The two sides agreed that there should be only one China, and that the Chinese should be allowed to resolve the problem by themselves. It′s over the matter of human rights which the two countries have the most obvious differences.
Before the formal meeting, President Jiang was welcomed by his American counterpart in an elaborate ceremony at the White House. But as Mark Thun reports, they were only metres away from protesters championing a variety of causes.
(75) The autumn air might have been chilly, but the welcoming ceremony for the Chinese President was anything but cold. Mr.and Mrs. Jiang zemin were greeted by the American president and the First Lady. The two heads of state inspected the honour guard and national anthems were played with the twentyone gun salute as the background. With a chime swinging leisurely only a few steps away, President Bill Clinton spoke of a better future, “Let us strengthen the bonds between us, let us pursue common causes, let us address our differences openly and with respect, let us build a better world for our children.”And Mr. Jiang gave a similarly optimistic reply,partly in English, “Let us, the Chinese and the Americans, join hands, and together with people around the world, work hard to bring about the new century of peace, stability and the prosperity.”

Part Ⅴ Writing(15 points)
Directions:
A)Title:POPULATION CONTROL IS NEEDED
B)Time limit:40 minutes
C)Word limit:120—150(not including the given opening sentence)
D)Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the given opening sentence:“The rapid growth of population has become a serious problem in the world.”
E)Your composition must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.
Outline:
1.Our food supply is limited.
2.Our supply of natural resources is limited.
3.Our space is limited.
Conclusion

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