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2005年全国研究生入学考试英语押题试卷(一)
http://www.21tx.com 2006年11月03日
一、完形填空题(每题1分,共20分)选择下列答案中正确的一个,选择您认为正确的答案。


  During the 1980s, unemployment and underemployment in some countries was as high as 90 percent. Some countries did not 1 enough food; basic needs in housing and clothing were not 2 . Many of these countries looked to the industrial processes of the developed nations 3 solutions.

  4 , problems cannot always be solved by copying the industrialized nations. Industry in the developed nations is highly automated and very 5 . It provides fewer jobs than labor-intensive industrial processes, and highly 6 workers are needed to 7 and repair the equipment. These workers must be trained, 8 many nations do not have the necessary training institutions. Thus, the 9 of importing industry BEComes higher. Students must be sent abroad to 10 vocational and professional training. 11, just to begin training, the students must 12 learn English, French, German, or Japanese. The students then spend many years abroad, and 13 do not return home.

  All nations aGREe that science and technology 14 be shared. The point is, countries 15 the industrial processes of the developed nations need to look carefully 16 the costs, because many of these costs are 17 . Students from these nations should 18 the problems of the industrialized countries closely. 19 care, they will take home not the problems of science and technology, 20 the benefits.

  1. [A] generate  [B] raise  [C] produce  [D] manufacture

  2. [A] answered  [B] met  [C] calculated  [D] remembered

  3. [A] for  [B] without  [C] as  [D] about

  4. [A] Moreover  [B] Therefore  [C] Anyway  [D] However

  5. [A] expensive  [B] mechanical  [C] flourishing  [D] complicated

  6. [A] gifted  [B] skilled  [C] trained  [D] skillful

  7. [A] keep  [B] maintain  [C] retain  [D] protect

  8. [A] since  [B] so  [C] and  [D] yet

  9. [A] charge  [B] price  [C] cost  [D] value

  10. [A] accept  [B] gain  [C] receive  [D] absorb

  11. [A] Frequently  [B] Incidentally  [C] Occasionall  [D] Eventually

  12. [A] soon  [B] quickly  [C] immediately  [D] first

  13. [A] some  [B] others  [C] several  [D] few

  14. [A] might  [B] should  [C] would  [D] will

  15. [A] adopting  [B] conductin [C] receiving  [D] adjusting

  16. [A] to  [B] at  [C] on  [D] about

  17. [A] small  [B] secret  [C] obvious [D] hidden

  18. [A] tackle  [B] learn  [C] study  [D] deal

  19. [A] In  [B] Through  [C] With [D] Under

  20. [A] except  [B] no [C] or  [D] but

  二、阅读理解题(每题1分,共20分)选择下列答案中正确的一个,选择您认为正确的答案

  Text1

  Perhaps no poet's career was more closely associated with the Imagist(印象派)movement than was that of H.D.(Hilda Doolittle). Her verse, with its precise, clear images, typified the imagists rebellion against what they perceived as the sentimentalism and careless techniques of nineteenth-century poetry.

  H.D.attended private schools in Philadelphia and then Bryan Mawr College. The love of classical antiquity she acquired during these years later surfaced in the many references in her poetry to figures from Greek and Egyptian mythology and in her classical notions of beauty and form. While in Philadelphia she also began making friendships with Ezra Pound, William Carlos Williams, and Harriet Monroe.

  In 1911, H.D.sailed for Europe, where her career began. Soon after arriving in London, she renewed her friendship with Pound and met and married Richard Aldington, an Imagist poet and novelist who also directly influenced the shape of her writing. She began writing short poems that so impressed Pound with their precise description and diction that he insisted she submit them to Harriet Monroe's Poetry magazine signed "H.D., Imagist." She persisted in using her initials for the remainder of her career closely linked to the Imagist rebellion against more traditional poetry.

  The clear, spare, and energetic lyrics of H.D.'s early poems, with their classical images, later became fuller, freer, and more "open" philosophic explorations of the world. By the destruction of the Second World War that she witnessed evoked deeper visions of the relationship of ancient truths to modern realities. That vision is expressed in such works as Truiolgy(三部曲)(1946), Helen in Egypt(1961), and her last work, Hermetic Definition(1961).

  H.D.'s industry and literal achievement are just beginning to be recognized and appreciated. In addition to her poetry, she wrote several novels, including Palimpsest(重写本)(1926), Heylus(1928), and Bid Me to Live(1960). Many of her other poems, essays, and short stories have been published posthumously.

  21、The main topic of the passage is most probably . (本题分值:1分)

  「正确答案」 B

  [A]H.D.'s early works

  [B]H.D.'s contributions to a literary movement

  [C]The influence of nineteenth-century poetry on H.D.'s work

  [D]The role of mythology in H.D.'s poetry

  22、According to the passage, the Imagists revolted against earlier poets' emphasis on . (本题分值:1分)

  「正确答案」 D

  [A]strict technique

  [B]the classic

  [C]beauty and form

  [D]emotion

  23、H.D. was encouraged to submit her work to Poetry magazine by . (本题分值:1分)

  「正确答案」 B

  [A]Richard Aldington[B]Ezra Pound[C]Harriet Monroe[D]William Carlos Williams

  24、It can be inferred from the passage that H.D.'s work . (本题分值:1分)

  「正确答案」 D

  [A]discussed personal relationships

  [B]was typical of nineteenth-century

  [C]was difficult to understand

  [D]became more widely known after her death

  25、The word "posthumously"(line 4, para. 5)most probably means . (本题分值:1分)

  「正确答案」C

  [A]in the later years of the author

  [B]without creating a sensation

  [C]after the death of the author

  [D]after the publication of other works

  Text 2
  
   Archaeology is a source of history, not just a humble auxiliary discipline. Archaeological data are historical documents in their own right, not mere illustrations to written texts. Just as much as any other historian, an archaeologist studies and tries to reconstitute the process that has created the human world in which we live -- and us ourselves in so far as we are each creatures of our age and social environment. Archaeological data are all changed in the material world resulting from human action or, more succinctly, the fossilized results of human behavior. The sum total of these constitutes what may be called the archaeological record. This record exhibits certain peculiarities and deficiencies the consequences of which produce a rather superficial contrast between archaeological history and the more familiar kind based upon written records.
 
   Not all human behavior fossilizes. The words I utter and you hear as vibrations in the air are certainly human changes in the material world any may be of great historical significance. Yet they leave no sort of trace in the archaeological records unless they are captured by a Dictaphone or written down by a clerk. The movement of troops on the battlefield may "change the course of history", but this is equally ephemeral from the archaeologist's standpoint. What is perhaps worse is that most organic materials are perishable. Everything made of wood, hide, wool, linen, grass, hair, and similar materials will decay and vanish in dust in a few years or centuries, save under very exceptional conditions. In a relatively brief period the archaeological record is reduced to mere scraps of stone, bone, glass, metal, and earthenware. Still modern by a few lucky finds from peat bogs, deserts, and frozen soils, is able to fill up a good deal of the gap.
  
  31、According to the passage, the archaeological record consists of .(本题分值:1分)
  
  「正确答案」a

   [a]spoken words of great historical significance

   [b]the fossilized results of human activity

   [c]organic materials

   [d]ephemeral ideas
  
  32、The word“they”in line 13 refers to .(本题分值:1分)
  
  「正确答案」b

   [a]scraps  [b]words [c]troops [d]humans
  
  33、Which of the following is not mentioned as an example of an organic material?(本题分值:1分)
  
  「正确答案」a

   [a]stone. [b]wool. [c]grass. [d]hair.
  
  34、The author mentions all of the following archaeological discovery sites except .(本题分值:1分)
  
  「正确答案」a

   [a]urban areas        [b]pet bogs

   [c]very hot and dry lands   [d]earth that has been frozen
  
  35、The paragraph following the passage most probably discusses .(本题分值:1分)
  
  「正确答案」c

   [a]techniques for recording oral histories

   [b]certain battlefield excavation methods

   [c]some specific archaeological discoveries

   [d]building materials of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

  三、单项选择题(每题2分,共10分)选择下列答案中正确的一个,选择您认为正确的答案。



  Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now.
  
  41)Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. That kind of rock in which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the original land, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate.

  42)____Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks formed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or near water. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, and insects of which we know noting.

  43) There were also crablike creatures, whose bodies were covered with a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They were usually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet.

  44)____Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important. They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary home of the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed off the previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the Dorset Coast.

  45)____ About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over and most of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can trace the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many of the later mammals though now extinct, were known to primitive man and were featured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings.

  [A]The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known.

  [B]Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils, From them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate.

  [C]The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first known in the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago the amphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. They were giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy pools in which our coal seam, or layer, or formed. The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the air.

  [D]The best index fossils tend to be marine creature. There animals evolved rapidly and spread over large over large areas of the world.

  [E]The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forma are more complex, and among these are the sea-lilies, relations of the star-fishes, which had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks.

  [F]When an animal dies,the body,its bones,or shell,may often be carried away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud .If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with mud .More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become embedded and preserved.

  [G]Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks. Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidic solution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stable form.
  
  41、(本题分值:2分)
  
  「正确答案」B

  42、(本题分值:2分)
  
  「正确答案」F
  
  43、(本题分值:2分)
  
  「正确答案」E  
  44、(本题分值:2分)
  
  「正确答案」A

  45、(本题分值:2分)
  
  「正确答案」C

  四、翻译题(每题2分,共10分)请将正确答案填入下面的输入框,修改无误后点“提交”。



  46)The main impression growing out of twelve years on the faculty of a medical school is that the No.1 health problem in the U. S. today, even more than AIDS or cancer, is that Americans don't know how to think about health and illness. Our reactions are formed on the terror level. We fear the worst, expect the worst, thus invite the worst. The result is that we are becoming a nation of weaklings and hypochondriacs (自疑有病者), a self-medicating society incapable of distinguishing between casual, everyday symptoms and those that require professional attention.

  Somewhere in our early education we become addicted to the notion that pain means sickness. 47) We fail to learn that pain is the body's way of informing the mind that we are doing something wrong, not necessarily that something is wrong. We don't understand that pain may be telling us that we are eating too much or the wrong things; or that we are smoking too much or drinking too much; or that there is too much emotional congestion in our lives; or that we are being worn down by having to cope daily with overcrowded streets and highways, the pounding noise of garbage grinders, or the cosmic distance between the entrance to the airport and the departure gate, we get the message of pain all wrong. 48) Instead of addressing ourselves to the cause, we become pushovers for pills, driving the pain underground and inviting it to return with increased authority.

  49) Early in life, too, we become seized with the bizarre idea that we are constantly assaulted by invisible monsters called germs, and that we have to be on constant alert to protect ourselves against their fury. Equal emphasis, however, is not given to the presiding fact that our bodies are superbly equipped to deal with the little demons, and that the best way of forestalling an attack is to maintain a sensible life-style.

  The most significant single statement about health to appear in the medical journals during the past decade is by Dr. Franz Ingelfinger, the late and former editor of the New England Journal of Medicine. Ingelfinger noted that almost all illnesses are self-limiting. That is, the human body is capable of handling them without outside intervention.

  50)The thrust of the article was that we need not feel we are helpless if disease tries to tear away at our bodies, and that we can have greater confidence in the reality of a healing system that is beautifully designed to meet most of its problems.And even when outside help is required, our own resources have something of value to offer in a combined strategy of treatment.

  46、(本题分值:2分)
  
  「正确答案」
  
  在一所医学院任教十二年来,我获得的主要印象是:当今美国头号健康问题,甚至比爱滋病或癌症更为严重的问题,就是美国人不知道如何去认识健康与疾病。
  
  47、(本题分值:2分)
  
  「正确答案」
  
  我们不知道,人体只是用疼痛这种方式通知大脑,是我们的行为出了差错,而并非一定的健康问题。
  
  48、(本题分值:2分)
  
  「正确答案」
  
  我们不去探查其缘由,却大服其药,把疼痛压下去,从而招致它以更大的威力再次发作。
  
  49、(本题分值:2分)
  
  「正确答案」
  
  我们在少年时代就形成了一种奇怪的观念:一种肉眼看不见的叫做细菌的妖怪在不断向我们进攻,我们必须常备不懈地保护自己不受伤害。
  
  50、(本题分值:2分)
  
  「正确答案」
  
  这篇文章的主旨是:受到疾病攻击时,我们无需感到无助,而应对下述事实抱有充分的信心—人体的健康机制十分精巧,足以应付大部分疾病。

  五、写作题(每题20分,共40分)请将您对本题目的答案填入下面输入框,修改无误后点“提交”。
  
  51、Directions:
  
  You booked a two-week holiday to Sydney with fly-by-night travel. You are not happy with the holiday—the flight was delayed, the hotel was noisy, and so on.
  
  Write to fly-by-night travel to complain about the holiday giving details about the problems. Request some compensation or refund.
  
  You should write about 100 words on answer sheet 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter.
  
  Use“Li Ming”instead. You do not need to write the address.(本题分值:20分)
  
  「正确答案」略
  
  52、Directions:
  
  The graphs below show the types of music albums purchased by people in Britain according to sex and age.
  
  Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.
  
  You should write about 160-200 words neatly on answer sheet 2.(本题分值:20分)
  
  「正确答案」 略

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