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名师指导:九年级英语第十一单元讲与练
http://www.21tx.com 2006年12月09日 燕赵都市报

  石家庄市第20中学 鄢桂风

  一、疑点难点破解

  1. Can you tell me where there’s a good place to eat?你能告诉我哪里有吃饭的好地方吗?

  疑点:to eat动词不定时作place的后置定语。如:I want to find something to eat.

  难点:当动词不定式作定语时,若不定式中的动词为不及物动词,后面的介词不能省略。如:It’s very cold outside. We must find a room to live in.

  2. Peter,please lend me your pen.彼得,把你的钢笔借给我一下。

  疑点:lend sb. sth.=lend sth. to sb把某物借给某人,如:I have lent my pen to the teacher=I have lent the teacher my pen.

  难点:“借”的表达方式不同,表达的含义也不同。观察例句,体会“借”的不同。

  1)May I borrow some books from the library?我可以从图书馆借几本书吗?borrow…from…从…借…(对主语来说是借进)

  2)He has kept the book for five days.这本书他已经借了五天了。keep sth. for some time借某物一段时间,用于完成时。

  3)Can I have a piece of paper from you?我可以借你一张纸吗?have sth. from sb.借某人某物(借后不用归还)

  3.They have organized games and the staff dress up as clown.他们组织各种游戏,所有人都装扮成小丑。

  疑点:dress up常用作不及物动词短语,意为“穿着最好的衣服、打扮、化妆”,其后一般不接表示衣服的名词。如:They all dressed up as teachers and began to teach in the class.

  难点:表示穿着的词还有几个,每一个都有不同的侧重点,学习中注意区分。put on和get dress都表示穿上衣服的意思,强调穿的动作;wear,be in,be dressed侧重穿着、戴着的状态;dress意为“给…穿衣服”。

  4. On the other hand,it might be alright to say “Where is my book?”in some situations,perhaps with people you know well.另外一方面,与你熟识的人在某些场合说“我的书哪儿去了?”或许更好一些。

  疑点:alright=all right主要用法有三种:

  1)用于系动词be之后,表示健康状况,相当于fine或well;如:How are you?I am alright/well/fine.

  2)表示赞同对方的意见,意为“行、好吧”;如:Let’s meet outside the school gate.Alright=All right.

  3)表示令人满意、顺利的,如:His teaching is alright.他教的课令人满意。

  难点:注意和That’s right. That’s all right.的区别。That’s right=You are right=Right表示赞同对方的意见或看法,意为“不错、正确”。

  That’s all right.

  1)用于回答别人表示感谢时的用语,意为“别客气、不用谢”

  2)用于回答别人道歉时的用语,意为“不要紧、没关系”

  3)用于对对方某一情况表明“没问题、行了”

  二、重点讲解

  1.Could you please tell me where the restrooms are?请你告诉我厕所在哪儿好吗?

  Could you…?是个句型,could在此不是过去形式,它此时表示语气婉转、有礼貌。在希望得到肯定答复的疑问句中,以及在含有表示建议、请求和征求意见语气的疑问句中,常用some和something,而不用any和anything。

  (1)Could you lend me your motorbike, please? 请把你的摩托车借给我好吗?

  (2)Could you tell me something about yourself.请谈谈你自己好吗?

  2. The bank is next to the bookstore.银行在书店的旁边。

  next to: a close beside贴近,靠近

  如:I’m sitting next to Mary.我坐在玛丽的旁边。

  英语中表示方位的表达有:close to在附近;on the left/right side在左/右边;in the middle of在…的中间;in front of 在…的前面;between…and…在…之间;be opposite to在……对面;across from 在……对面。

  3. It’s also just fun to watch people.观察人是很有趣的。

  It’s+adj.+(for sb.)+to do sth.(对于某人来说,做某事是……的)

  该句型中,it是一个形式主语,真正的主语是不定式短语to do sth.句型中的for sb.常根据需要省略。

  如:It’s impossible for him to get up early.对于他来说,早起床是不可能的。

  4. When I go into stores I always spend too much money!当我走进商店,我总会花掉很多的钱。

  spend,cost,take,pay 都可以表示“花费”,但用法却不尽相同。

  1)spend的主语必须是人,常用于以下结构:spend time/money on sth. 在……上花费时间(金钱)。如:I spent two hours on this maths problem.这道数学题花了我两个小时。

  spend time/money (in) doing sth.花费时间(金钱)做某事。如:They spent two years (in) building this bridge. 造这座桥花了他们两年时间。

  spend money for sth. 花钱买……。如:His money was spent for books.他的钱用来买书了。

  2)cost的主语是物或某种活动,还可以表示“值”,常见用法如下:

  sth. costs (sb.)+金钱,某物花了(某人)多少钱。如:A new computer costs a lot of money.买一台新电脑要花一大笔钱。

  (doing) sth. costs (sb.)+时间,某物(做某事)花了(某人)多少时间。如:Remembering these new words cost him a lot of time. 他花了大量时间才记住了这些单词。

  3)take后面常跟双宾语,常见用法有以下几种:

  It takes sb.+时间+to do sth.做某事花了某人多少时间。如:It took them three years to build this road.他们用了三年时间修完了这条路。doing sth. takes sb. +时间,做某事花了某人多少时间。如:Repairing this car took him the whole afternoon. 他花了一下午修车。

  4)pay的基本用法是:

  pay(sb.) money for sth. 付钱(给某人)买,如:I have to pay them 20 pounds for this room each month. 我每个月要付20英镑的房租。

  pay for sth. 付……的钱。如:I have to pay for the book lost.我不得不赔丢失的书款。

  pay for sb.替某人付钱。

  如:Don’t worry! I’ll pay for you.别担心,我会给你付钱的。

  5. It’s kind of small.它有点小。kind of: rather;in a certain way 有点儿,有几分。如:I’m feeling kind of tired.我感到有点儿累了。

  a kind of:a sort of 一种。如:Shark is a kind of fish in the sea. 鲨鱼是一种海里的鱼。

  三、语法展示

  宾语从句:宾语从句是初中英语重要的语法内容,同时它也是中考必考项目。要学好宾语从句,必须掌握好它的基本概念,基本特点和有关难点。

  基本概念:在复合句中用作宾语的从句叫做宾语从句。它是众多从句中的一员,它在复合句中作主句谓语动词、介词的宾语。

  1、掌握引导宾语从句的各种连词

  2、掌握宾语从句的语序——主句+连接词+主语+谓语

  3、掌握宾语从句与主句在时态上的呼应。

  重点:语序和时态呼应

  难点:语序和时态呼应;与疑问词+不定式的转化;与状语从句的辨析

  (一)连接词

  1.连词that(在口语、非正式文体中可以省略,本身没有意义)。引导陈述句做宾语从句。如:I tell him that I have read the story.

  2.连词if或whether(是否)引导的宾语从句。如:Do you know if he will go to school tomorrow?

  3.连接代词who,whose,what,which和连接副词how,when where引导的宾语从句。这些连词在句中作成分,有实际意义不能省略。

  He didn’t know when he would leave for Shanghai.

  注意:1、由连接代、副词引导的宾语从句可以和“疑问词+不定式”结构转化。如. I don’t know how I should do with the presents.=I don’t know how to do with the presents.

  2、要注意区分判断由if、when引导的从句类型.(宾语从句还是状语从句)

  (二)语序

  从句要用陈述句语序,就是指宾语从句中主语一定要放在谓语动词之前。

  1.主句(主语+谓语vt)+(that)从句(主语+谓语……);

  2.主句+if/whether从句(主语+谓语…);

  3.主句+连接代词who/whom/whose/what/which+陈述句语序(主语+谓语…);

  4.主句+连接副词when/where/why/how+陈述句语序。

  (三)时态一致

  宾语从句中谓语动词的时态,常常受主句谓语时态的制约,这种现象称为“时态的呼应”。

  1.主句是一般现在时,宾语从句可以使用各种时态。

  2.主句是一般过去时,宾语从句时态要用与过去相关的时态。比如,一般过去时,过去完成时,过去将来时等等。

  (四)相关的难点及考点

  1.连结词that的省略。在非正式场合下,that在引导宾语从句时可以省略。如:I think (that) it is terrible.

  但在正式场合,特别是表示建议要求的从句,一般不省略。

  2.Whether不能换为if的情况

  一般情况下,if和whether可以互换,但以下3种情况只能用whether:

  ①在不定式前:Whether to go there or not hasn‘t been decided.

  ②在介词前:It depends on whether it is going to rain.

  ③与or not连用:They are talking about whether to go there or not.

  3.语序例外的特例。

  What’s the matter ?作为宾语从句时有两种前况。当它的解释是“怎么了?”时,语序不要变化。当它的解释是“这是什么物质?”时,要变为陈述句语序。如:

  The teacher asked the students what the matter was.

  The teacher asked the students what was the matter?

  4.时态例外的特例。

  如果宾语从句所叙述的是客观真理、自然现象、名言警句或谚语等,不管主句是什么时态,从句都用原时态。

  The teacher told us light travels much faster than sound .

  5.宾语从句否定意义的转移。

  在think , believe , suppose, imagine等动词所跟的宾语中,如果从句谓语是否定的,一般要将否定词not转移至主句谓语上去,而将从句谓语改为肯定形式。如:

  I don‘t think he has time to play with the girl.

  6.由think , believe , suppose, imagine 加宾语从句的反意疑问句。

  其疑问部分的构成方法是:“结构看从句,肯定否定看主句”

  如:He thought it was late , wasn’t it ?

  7.宾语从句和状语从句的分辩。

  在某些情况下,同学们容易混淆宾语从句和状语从句。如if 引导的宾语从句或状语从句。可以用以下方法来处理:

  当if解释为“是否”时,其引导的是宾语从句。遵循宾语从句的时态规则。

  He doesn‘t know if the famous singer will come tomorrow.

  当if解释为“如果”时,其引导的是条件状语从句。遵循的是“主将从现”的时态规则。

  He will come if he has time tomorrow.

  四、达标训练

  (一)单项选择

  ( )1.Could you please us Mary’s telephone number?

  A. to give B. give

  C. givingD. to giving

  ( )2.He often makes big plans that never .

  A. happen B. to happen

  C. happening

  D. to happening

  ( )3. Can you please tell me where the post office?

  A. to find

  B. can I find

  C. how to find

  D. find

  ( )4. Do you know where some maps?

  A. can I buy

  B. can buy

  C. I can buy

  D. buy

  ( )5. Mr Tan makes the best noodles in town. They’re .

  A. sour B. delicious

  C. crispy D. salty

  ( )6. Do you know there are any good restaurants this block?

  A. if,on

  B. how,on

  C. if,to

  D. where,to

  ( )7.I live next to Xinshilong supermarket. It’s very .

  A. beautiful

  B. clean

  C. delicious

  D. convenient

  ( )8. Do you know where ?

  A. is the shop

  B. is shop

  C. shop is

  D. the shop is

  ( )9.——Do you know how to go the restrooms?

  ——

  A. Yes,I can.

  B. I could.

  C. Sure.

  D. I could tell you.

  ( )10. ——Where is the bookstore?

  ——Take the elevator the second floor and turn left. And the bookstore is the furniture store and the drugstore.

  A. at,next to

  B. at,between

  C. on,between

  D. to,next to

  ( ) 11. Can you tell me ?

  A. how much does it cost

  B.how much it is

  C.how much it costs

  D. Both B and C

  ( )12-I don’t know Mr.GREen will come to see us.

  ——He will help us with our English.

  A.why B.when

  C.how D.where

  ( )13. I don’t feel very well.Mum asked me this morning.

  A. what the matter is

  B.what was wrong

  C.what the matter was

  D.what wrong was

  ( ) 14. Yao Ming is a boy who is helping the Houston Rockets in NBA.

  A.2.16-metres-tall

  B. 2.26-metre-tall

  C. 2.16 metres tall

  D. 2.26 metres

  ( )15.——Where is Jack?

  ——He is away to spend his holiday.He’s gone either to Hangzhou or to Wuhan,but I’m not sure _____.

  A.that B.which

  C.where D.there

  (二)同步写作

  先阅读下面表格里的内容并续写短文(开头已给出,80字左右).

  Everyone likes to go to different places. .

  答案:(一) 1-5 BAACB 6-10 ADDCC 11-15 DBBBC

  (二)Everyone likes to go to different places. I like to go to libraries,BECause it is quiet and I can read all kinds of books there. But on Sundays there aren‘t enough seats. Shopping in the supermarket is convenient and inexpensive,so Tom likes shopping there. But sometimes there are too many people and he says he has to wait for a long time.Mario likes shopping in the mall. Though it is too crowed and noisy,it is relaxing and fascinating.

名师指导:九年级英语第十一单元讲与练

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