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2007年初中英语期末总复习之词汇篇
http://www.21tx.com 2007年01月12日 现代教育报·中考导刊

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  期末总复习之词汇篇

  易混词大盘点

  从近年来的中考题可以看出命题者的目的都是要考查学生对一些较易混淆、形式上非常相近的词(词组)是否能掌握扎实,是否熟悉每个词组的中文意思并能在句子中熟练运用。要想做对以上出现的类似的中考考题,考生必须能总结清各种初中阶段所学过的较易混淆、形式上非常相近的词(词组),熟记所有词组的中文意思,熟悉它们的用法和区别。为了方便同学们复习,特将常考易混词(词组)整理如下:

  一、容易混淆的动词:

  [考试说明] 了解及物动词和不及物动词用法;掌握动词不定式作宾语、宾语补足语、状语以及疑问词连用构成不定式短语的基本用法;理解动词不定式作主语和定语的用法;初步掌握延续性动词和瞬间动词在用法上的区别等。

  1. come & be here

  [误] He has come here for three hours.

  [正] He came here three hours ago.

  [正] He has been here for three hours.

  come是瞬间动词,不是延续性动词,在肯定句中不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。而要与表示一段时间的状语连用,就要用延续动词。

  与此同类的还有borrow/lend-keep; join-be in/at; die-be dead; buy-have; leave-be away,etc.

  2. cost & take & spend & pay

  [误] I cost a lot of time to read stories.

  [正] It cost me a lot of time to read stories.

  [正] I spent a lot of time reading stories.

  cost除了钱的花费以外,还能表示时间上的花费,但常用物做主语。spend句子主语是人,可指花费时间和金钱,但后面的动词要用-ing形式,后面也可跟名词短语,介词用on。pay句子主语是人,常与for连用,buy也常与for连用,但花费“钱”要放在介词for后面,而pay则放在介词for前面。

  3. join & take part in

  [误] He joined the League for two years.

  [正] He joined the League two years ago.

  [正] He has been in the League for two years.

  [正] He has been a League member for two years.

  join指“参加”组织,成为一个成员,join sb.意思是“加入某人”,take part in指参加活动特别是大的运动;如指“参加…多长时间”就要用延续动词be in或be a …member,而不能用join。

  4. borrow & lend & keep

  [误] She has lent me the book for a week.

  [正] She lent me the book a week ago.

  [正] It’s a week since she lent me the book.

  borrow和lend是短暂性动词,在肯定句里不和表示一段时间的状语连用,keep延续动词,可与表示一段时间的状语连用。

  borrow意思是“借(进)”,后面跟介词from,lend意思是“借(出)”,后面跟介词to,lend也可用于某些成语中,如lend sb. a hand。

  5. lie & lay & lain

  [误] She laid down the book and laid in bed.

  [正] She laid down the book and lay in bed.

  lie有两个意思,一个是“说谎”,过去式和过去分词是在词尾加-d;另一个是“躺,卧;位于”,是不规则动词,其过去式和过去分词是lay、lain,现在分词是lying。

  lay意思是“放;孵(蛋)”,其过去式和过去分词是laid、laid。

  6. be made in & be made of & be made from & be made up of

  [误] The table is made from wood.

  [正] The table is made of wood.

  be made in意思是“由……生产”,强调产地;be made of意思是“用……制成”,强调从成品上能看出原料,制成物没改变原料的本质;be made from意思也是“用……制成”,强调从制成物上看不出原料,制成物已改变原料的本质;be made up of意思是“由……构成或组成”,指人或物都可,指结构成分。

  7. stop to do & stop doing

  [误] He was too tired, so he stopped having a rest.

  [正] He was too tired, so he stopped to have a rest.

  [误] Look! The teacher is coming. We must stop to talk.

  [正] Look! The teacher is coming. We must stop talking.

  stop to do意思是“停下(正做的事)(开始)去做(别的某事)”,带to的不定式在句子中作目的状语;stop doing意思“停止做某事(不做了)”,带-ing形式的动名词在句子中作宾语。

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