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名师指导:英语阅读及表达题详解及答题步骤
http://www.21tx.com 2007年01月15日 现代教育报·中考导刊

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  阅读与表达

  一、题型简介

  阅读与表达是近两年中考英语中出现的新题型,要求学生阅读短文并回答问题。短文通常有3%的生词量,单词量在250~300左右。本题有5道小题,共10分。此题难度较大,它不仅考查了学生的阅读能力还考查了学生的书面表达能力。

  二、考查要点

  掌握所读短文的主旨和大意

  了解阐述主旨的事实和细节

  了解词义和句义深层含义

  根据所读短文进行判断和推论

  根据所读短文概括文章大意

  三、历史回顾

  2004年和2005年两年的中考题中,各种疑问句的比例没有变化,特殊疑问句的比例最大占60%,其次是一般疑问句和选择疑问句,各占20%,反意疑问句没有考。回答一般疑问句时用YES或NO,回答选择疑问句,一般从选项中选一项,或用Both/Neither回答的较少。回答特殊疑问句要看懂问什么,关键是看清疑问词。

  四、未来预测

  1 命题难度将有所上升,突出能力考查与选拔功能,阅读理解难度略有提高,这主要表现在命题从不同角度,不同思维方式出发,除了考查学生准确获得信息的能力外更多的是测试学生综合运用英语的能力。

  2 阅读的题材与体裁也多样化,篇幅会有所加长,材料也会更趋现代化,生活化,知识化,以突出实用性和时代性。

  3 在命题上会加大对考生理解、概括、推理和判断等深层次能力的考查。

  4 问题的样式也将更多样化,更全面。

  五、 提问类型

  1.由一般疑问句引出的判断题

  Example1:Did Frank know how to get people to buy his goods quickly?

  Key:Yes. / Yes, he did. (西城区2006年期末测试)

  (原文) Woolworth(Frank) realized he had a skill for displaying goods to attract people’s interest, but he soon learned something more important. One day his manager told him to sell some odds and ends for as much as he could get. Frank put all these things on one table with a sign which said: Five Cents Each. People fought and pushed to buy the things and the table was soon empty.

  Example2: Is Jason’s human-powered machine a bicycle?

  Key: Yes. / Yes, it is. (2005年北京市中考题)

  (原文) Jason Queally is one of the fastest men in the world on bicycle. But do you really call the thing in the picture a bicycle? Well, yes. Jason’s human-powered (人力的) machine, with its two wheels, is, of course, a bicycle.

  Example3: Is pleasure reading important for learning English?

  Key: Yes. / Yes, it is. (2004年北京市中考题)

  (原文) Reading for pleasure is the easiest way to BECome a better reader in English. It is also the most important way.

  Example4: Do you learn all the things you need to know at school?

  Key: No. / No, we don’t. (宣武区2006年期末测试)

  (原文) There are many things we need to know. But we don’t learn them at school.

  2.用一句话概括文章大意,提问形式有以下几种类型:

  uWhat did the story tell us?

  uWhat does the writer want us to do by writing the passage?

  uWhat’s the main idea of the passage?

  3.由特殊疑问词Who(人物)、Where(地点)、When(时间)、What(事件)、Why(原因)、How(方式)引导的特殊疑问句来提问文章的细节。

  Example1: Where were they traveling?

  Key: They were traveling through (in) the desert.

  (2006东城区形成性测试Unit 18)

  (原文)A story tells that two friends were walking through the desert.

  Example2: How did he feel when his friend slapped him in the face?

  Key: He felt hurt / angry / unhappy / sad.

  (2006东城区形成性测试Unit 18)

  (原文) In the journey they had an argument, and one friend slapped the other one in the face. The one who got slapped was hurt, but without saying anything, wrote in the sand:

  “TODAY MY BEST FRIEND SLAPPED ME IN THE FACE.”

  Example3: What did his friend do when he was in trouble?

  Key: His friend helped him (out) / saved his life (him).

  (2006东城区形成性测试Unit 18)

  (原文) They kept on walking until they found an oasis, where they decided to take a bath. The one who had been slapped got stuck in mud and asked for help, his friend helped him out. After that, he wrote on a stone:

  “TODAY MY BEST FRIEND SAVED MY LIFE.”

  Example4: What should we compare when we use money wisely?

  Key: We should compare the prices and quality of the things in different shop.

  (宣武区2006年期末测试)

  (原文)There are many things we need to know. But we do not learn them at school. For example, if we want to use our money wisely, we need to shop carefully. We need to know how to compare (比较) the prices of things in different shops.

  We also need to compare the quality (质量) of different brands.

  Example5: How many small choices are mentioned in the fifth paragraph?

  Key: Three.

  (宣武区2006年期末测试)

  (原文)Some of these choices are small. For example, will I take an apple or a pear for lunch? Will I take the bus to school today or will I walk there? Will I wear the red T-shirt or the blue one to the movies? Other choices are more important. For example, will I eat healthy food for lunch or will I eat unhealthy food because it is more delicious? Will I work hard in all my classes or will I only work hard in the classes I enjoy? We make choices like this every day.

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