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名师解读GRE考试阅读长难句的典型结构
http://www.21tx.com 2008年09月28日
1、长成分

  1)长从句做主语、宾语及其他成分

  a、主语从句

  b、宾语从句

  2)长状语

  3)层层修饰

  4)并列成分

  2、常见倒装搭配

  (1)及物动词加介词:固定词组的固定搭配中,经常出现倒装情况,如:bring A to B,写作:bring to B A

  例:Yet Waltzer’s argument , however deficient , does point to one of the most serious weaknesses of capitalism-namely , that it brings to predominant positions in a society people who ,no matter how legitimately they have earned their material rewards , often lack those other qualities that evoke affection or admiration.

  类似的情况:throw over , insert into , import into , infer from, establish for , advocate as 等

  (2)及物动词加副词

  例:make possible …(单词或者句子)

  3、省略的几种情况

  (1)重复的成分

  (2)让步转折的省略:如although (but)

  (3)定语从句引导词的省略which(that )

  (4)定语从句的引导词和系动词同时省略,变成后置定语

  如:qualities(such as “the capacity for hard work”) essential in producing wealth
 4、 短语被分割

  如:such as, so that , too to , more than , from A to B , between A and B

  5、多重否定

  如:Despite these vague categories , one should not claim unequivocally that hostility between recognizable classes cannot be legitimately observed .

  6、难句分析举例

  Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry GREatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class , an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business.

  [句子主干]Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased …shareholders as a class, (which was) an element…

  [语法难点]本句是典型的非限定性定语从句,难点在其主语和宾语都有较长的短语和of结构限定,并且分句是由两个and相连的3个部分组成的。分句an element…landowners 又带有两个定语从句,一个是(which was)representing… ,另一个是(which was)detached…。

  可见,定语从句的难点在于经常省略“引导词+be”的结构,从而在理解上容易和分词结构相混淆。

  [句子翻译] 对资本和企业的这种大规模的非个人操纵大大增加了股东作为一个阶级的数量和重要性。这个阶层作为国计民生的一部分,代表了非个人责任的财富与土地及土地所有者应尽义务的分离,而且也几乎与责任管理相分离。

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