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运用逻辑 征服新托福口语:Task 5解析
http://www.21tx.com 2010年01月04日 中国教育在线

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  在新托福口语考试中很重要的一点是要时刻保持逻辑思维的敏锐性,在酝酿出丰富内容的同时运用逻辑的力量合理安排内容的发展才能征服考官,取得高分。西方人说话喜欢开门见山,表达时更是会事先在头脑中形成大致的逻辑框架,对开头、中间和结尾进行规划再脱口而出,因此显得条理清晰。考生只有以这种思维方式为基础,应用有逻辑性的开头来陈述立场,进而发展论点,得出结论,才会让考官形成思想认同。而在短短45秒到1分钟之内毫无计划性的回答只会严重影响考官的理解。那么逻辑性具体分几个方面来体现,这里就Task 5从头说起。

  一、框架逻辑

  口语考试共分为6个Task,前两个是Independent Task,直接根据指令回答问题,后四个为Integrated Task,要综合听力和阅读的内容作答。Task 5加入的是听力的内容,先听对话,然后根据对话内容回答问题,准备时间20秒,答题时间60秒。对话的内容是两个人先讨论一个问题,然后找出可能的两个解决问题的方法。题目指令要求考生叙述这个问题,说明选择哪一种方法,并解释原因。

  作为四个Integrated Task中唯一一个询问考生观点的题目,对自己观点的阐述相比对内容的概括要简单。指令的要求也非常的明晰,只要按照“复述问题-复述方案-选择方案-阐明理由”的步骤来进行,回答本身就已经有了一定的逻辑性。这就是文章开头所说的逻辑框架,也就是从结构或形式上来讲回答问题的逻辑性,朗阁海外考试研究中心将其大致概括为四步走:

  1.      General Description of Main Problem

  2.      Two Possible Solutions

  3.      Personal Opinion / Choice

  4.      Supporting Reasons

  二、内容逻辑

  确定了Task 5的逻辑框架以后,接下来便是对内容的有效组织。对问题本身和两种方案进行复述;选择对话中给出的一个解决方法;对于同意的方案可以用对话中出现的内容作为原因进行说明,对于不同意的方案清楚地说出个人反对的理由-所有的这些内容,除了要能用一些普遍的连接词来做好过渡衔接以外,状语从句的使用也是串联内容时必不可少的纽带。在Task 5中以原因、让步、条件状语从句体现尤为突出。

  下面以一道真题为例来分析其对逻辑体现的作用。题目如下:

  Man:           Hey Lisa, how’s it going?

  Woman:     Hi Mark. Uh, I’m OK, I guess, but my schoolwork is really stressing me out.

  Man:         [sympathetically] Yeah? What’s wrong?

  Woman:     Well, I’ve got a paper to write and two exams to study for. And a bunch of math problems to finish. It’s just so much that I can’t concentrate on any of it. I start concentrating on studying for one of my exams, and then I’m like, how long’s it gonna take to finish that problem set?

  Man:           Wow. Sounds like you’ve got a lot more work than you can handle right now. [Not wanting to sound too pushy] Look, have you talked to some of your professors . . . mean, you know, try to explain the problem. Look, you could probably get an extension on your paper, or on the math assignment . . .

  Woman:     You think? It would give me a little more time to prepare for my exams right now.

  Man:           Well, I mean another thing that you might do . . . I mean have you tried making yourself a schedule? I mean that’s what I do when I’m feeling overwhelmed.

  Woman:     What does that do for you?

  Man:           Well, I mean it helps you to focus your energies. You know, you make yourself a chart that shows the next few days and the time till your stuff is due and . . .

  Woman:     Uh-huh . . . [meaning “I’m listening”]

  Man:           I mean think about what you need to do and when you have to do it by. You know then start filling in your schedule—like, all right 9:00 [nine] to 11:30 [eleven-thirty] A.M., study for exam. 12:00 [twelve] to 3:00 [three], work on problem set. But I mean don’t make the time periods too long. Like, don’t put in eight hours of studying—you know, you’ll get tired, or start worrying about your other work again. But if you keep to your schedule, you know you’ll just have to worry about one thing at a time.

  Woman:     Yeah, that might work. [somewhat noncommittally]

  听完对话以后,考生会听到考题的要求如下:

  The students discuss two possible solutions to the woman’s problem. Describe the problem and state which solution you prefer and explain why.

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