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名师讲解商务英语(BEC)考试阅读部分解答技巧
http://www.21tx.com 2010年01月07日 小桌子

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  好多同学问到有没有考试的技巧,坦率说,我心里非常清楚,好多人想要的技巧则是能够在做阅读时不看文章就把题目全部做对,做听力时不听懂也能把题全部做对,写作文时一个字都不写也能做对,口语一句话都不说也能拿满分。说得的确有点夸张,但真实地反应了大家渴望捷径的心态。那么,有没有捷径呢,是有的,然而所谓捷径,要么省时,要么省力,要么省钱,但是不可能三样全省,也就是说,不可能省功,所以用功是最关键的,那么用功和不用功的结果是不同的,而我的理念是,如果我们看到一个人成功,如同魔术表演一样,但是却不知道他准备或者练习的过程,那么怎么可能和他一样呢?所以碰巧有学生问到我一篇BEC高级的阅读,我想把我的解题的思路放在这里,和大家分享一下,让大家看看我达到这样的结果的过程,希望能够给大家一点启示。

  In terms of pure quantity of research and debate, business schools have performed amazingly in promoting management as a distinctive activity. No other discipline has produced as much in such a short period. It is unclear yet how much of it will stand the test of time, but for sheer industry, the business school deserve credit. Not a day goes by without another wave of research papers, books, articles, and journals.

  In these terms, schools have produced a generally accepted theoretical basis for management. When it comes to knowledge creation, however, they find themselves in difficulties. They are caught between the need for academic rigour and for real-world business relevance, which tend to pull in opposite directions. The desire to establish management as a credible discipline leads to research that panders to traditional academic criteria. The problem for business school researchers is that they seek the approval of their academic peers rather than the business community. In the United States this has led to the sort of grand ‘paper clip counting’ exercises that meet demands for academic rigour but fail to add one iota to the real sum of human knowledge.

  Business schools have too often allowed the constraints of the academic world to cloud their view of the real world. Business school researchers seek provable theories – rather than helpful theories. They have championed a prescriptive approach to management based on analysis and, more recently, on fashionable ideas that soon disappear into the ether. The ‘one best way’ approach encourages researchers to mould the idiosyncrasies of managerial reality into their tightly defined models of behaviour. Figures and statistics are fitted into linear equations and tidy models. Economists and other social scientists label this cure smoothing. Meanwhile, reality continually refuses to co-operate.

  Central to this is the tension between relevance and rigour. In a perfect world, there would be no need to choose between the two. But in the business school world, the need to satisfy academic criteria and be published in journals often tilts the balance away from relevance. In other words, it is often easier to pursue quantifiable objectives than it is to add anything useful to the debate about management. To a large extent, the entire business school system works against useful, knowledge-creating research. Academics have five years in which to prove themselves if they are to make the academic grade. It seems long enough. But it can take two or even three years to get into a suitable journal. They therefore have around three years, probably less, to come up with an area of interest and carry out meaningful and original research. This is a demanding timescale. The temptation must be to slice up old data in new ways rather than pursue genuinely groundbreaking, innovative research.

  It is a criticism also made by some business school insiders. “Academic journals tend to find more and more techniques for testing more and more obscure theories. They are asking trivial questions and answering them exactly. There has to be a backlash,” says Julian Birkinshaw of London Business School. In large part, the problem goes back to a time when business schools were trying to establish themselves. Up until the 1960s, American business schools were dismissed as pseudo-academic institutions, including the universities of which they often formed a part, regarded them as a little more than vocational colleges. Since then, most of the leading schools have undergone major reassessments and introduced sweeping changes. However, it is questionable whether those changes have gone far enough.

  15 What does the first paragraph suggest about the research generated by business schools?A Its quality is variable.B Its lasting value is uncertain.C It has always been produced too quickly.D It has had no influence on management.

  16 In paragraph two, the writer argues that business school researchA takes a negative view of the business community.B as failed to give credibility to management as a discipline.C is directed at the wrong audience.D does not stand up to academic scrutiny.

  17 In the third paragraph, the writer criticizes the theories of management produced by business schools for beingA incomprehensible.B contradictory.C vague.D inflexible.

  18 In the fourth paragraph, the writer says that the business school system causes academics toA be satisfied with reinterpreting previous research.B avoid complicated business issues.C concentrate on very narrow fields of study.D focus on topics no longer relevant to business needs.19 What do we learn about business schools in the last paragraph? A They are reluctant to admit to failings.B They resent criticism of their academic journal.C They used to be looked down on by other institutions.D They are comfortable with the current situation.

  20 What is the writer’s purpose in this text?A to express reGREt at the growth of business schoolsB to point out a weakness in the approach of business schoolsC to criticize business school for producing bad academicsD to forecast the eventual collapse of business schools

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