·天新网首页·加入收藏·设为首页·网站导航
数码笔记本手机摄像机相机MP3MP4GPS
硬件台式机网络服务器主板CPU硬盘显卡
办公投影打印传真
家电电视影院空调
游戏网游单机动漫
汽车新车购车试驾
下载驱动源码
学院开发设计
考试公务员高考考研
业界互联网通信探索
您现在的位置:天新网 > 考试 > 考研 > 考研指南 > 考研英语
考研英语:阅读理解之推理题方法指导

  逻辑推理题在考研[微博]英语中考[微博]察了考生的判断、推理、引申能力,推理题通常题干上有三个典型词,即infer,imply和conclusion。如:What can you infer from the story? 或What is the implied meaning of this sentence? We can draw the conclusion from the passage that…, 推理性问题原文中没有现成的答案。只能自己推想出来,但不能凭空瞎想,必须以原文中某句话或某个词语为依据去合理推测才能找到答案。下面是太奇考研老师总结的逻辑推理关系解题方法和步骤。

  一、解题方法

  a. 要做好推理判断题,要求考生能够充分理解阅读文章、分析语篇特征、寻找解题依据。考生应该在领会全文的基础上作出正确的推理和判断;

  b. 要理解文章的字面意思,弄清上下文的整体逻辑;其次,在阅读过程中要一定要留意那些似乎话中有话的间接表达句,它们往往采用说半句、打比喻、反过来讲的方式,留有让考生自己作结论或推理的余地,同时要留意含义深刻或结构复杂的句子。同学们对作者表达的意思不能一下看透,它们往往是命题点所在;

  c. 要精读读题干,充分了解题目要求我们进行推理和判断的内容,以免白费力气;

  d. 仔细挖掘作者隐藏在文章中的一些重要涵义,切勿用自己的主观判断来代替文章内容。

  二、解题步骤

  第一步:通读全文,尤其是首末段,迅速得知文章的主旨大意;

  第二步:通读选项,在每个选项下边用笔标记本选项的大致中文意思,以做到心中有数,至少应该能知道可以供考生选择的选项的意思范围,并且在很短的时间里找到考生想找到的选项;

  第三步:迅速找到定位段落,重点关注定位段落的段落中心句和转折等逻辑关系后的内容,因为推理引申题的答案一般的对文章或是段落中心句的同义替换;

  第四步:在时间允许的情况下,明确该题你所排除的选项的错误之处,进而进一步确定你所选答案是否正确。因为考研阅读选的是最佳答案,考生最好是在全面衡量四个选项之后确定这个答案。

  三、判断、推理和引申原则有两种题型:

  1)三正一误结构

  要求考生判断哪一个选项与文章不符。检验答案时有两种方式,一是正确选项所给的信息在文中根本没有提到过,二是正确选项所给信息与文中其他内容相互冲突。

  例2(1996年第56题):

  With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporation’s news coverage, as well as listening to it。

  And of course in Britain listeners and viewers can tune in to two BBC television channels, five BBC national radio services and dozens of local radio stations. They are brought sport, comedy, drama, music, news and current affairs, education, religion, parliamentary coverage, children’s programmes and films for an annual license fee of £83 per household。

  It is a remarkable record, stretching back over 70 years—yet the BBC's future is now in doubt. The Corporation will survive as a publicly-funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmes are now the subject of a nation-wide debate in Britain。

  The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC—including ordinary listeners and viewers—to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. The reason for its inquiry is that the BBC’s royal charter runs out in 1996 and it must decide whether to keep the organization as it is, or to make changes。

  Defenders of the Corporation—of whom there are many—are fond of quoting the American slogan “If it ain’t broken, don't fix it。” The BBC “ain’t broke”, they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word ‘broke’, meaning having no money), so why bother to change it?

  Yet the BBC will have to change, BECause the broadcasting world around it is changing. The commercial TV channels—TV and Channel 4—were required by the Thatcher Government’s Broadcasting Act to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs. But it is the arrival of new satellite channels—funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers’ subscriptions—which will bring about the biggest changes in the long term。

  In the passage, which of the following about the BBC is not mentioned as the key issue?

  [A] Extension of its TV service to Far East。

  [B] Programmes as the subject of a nation-wide debate。

  [C] Potentials for further international co- operations。

  [D] Its existence as a broadcasting organization。

  综上所述一正三误与三正一误结构,我们可得出例题中的答案分别为D,C。

  2)一正三误

  要求考生找出四个选项中惟一正确的一个,检验答案时要注意这种题型最常采用的

  三种命题方式是:正话反说、反话正说和关键词替换。

  举例说明

  1997年第64题:

  No company likes to be told it is contributing to the moral decline of nation. “Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers?” Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. “You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well?” At Time Warner, however, such questions are simply the latest manifestation of the soul-searching that has involved the company ever since the company was born in 1990. It’s a self-examination that has, at various times, involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line。

  At the core of this debate is chairman Gerald Levin, 56, who took over for the late Steve Ross in 1992. On the financial front, Levin is under pressure to raise the stock price and reduce the company’s mountainous debt, which will increase to $17.3 billion after two new cable deals close. He has promised to sell off some of the property and restructure the company, but investors are waiting impatiently。

  The flap over rap is not making life any easier for him. Levin has consistently defended the company's rap music on the grounds of expression. In 1992, when Time Warner was under fire for releasing Ice-T’s violent rap song Cop Killer, Levin described rap as a lawful expression of street culture, which deserves an outlet. “The test of any democratic society,” he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column, “lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be. We won’t retreat in the face of any threats。”

  Levin would not comment on the debate last week, but there were signs that the chairman was backing off his hard-line stand, at least to some extent. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month's stockholders’ meeting, Levin asserted that “music is not the cause of society’s ills” and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students. But he talked as well about the “balanced struggle” between creative freedom and social responsibility, and he announced that the company would launch a drive to develop standards for distribution and labeling of potentially objectionable music。

  The 15-member Time Warner board is generally supportive of Levin and his corporate strategy. But insiders say several of them have shown their concerns in this matter. “Some of us have known for many, many years that the freedoms under the First Amendment are not totally unlimited,” says Luce. “I think it is perhaps the case that some people associated with the company have only recently come to realize this。”

  The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that。

  [A] Luce is a spokesman of Time Warner

  [B] Gerald Levin is liable to compromise

  [C] Time Warner is united as one in the face of the debate

  [D] Steve Ross is no longer alive

  第一段的最后一句暗示了什么?一个标准的三误一正的推理引申题。

  (文章来源:太奇考研)

上一篇: 如何拿下考研英语阅读这块“硬骨头”?
下一篇: 2014考研英语完型:快速找到文章主线索

关于我们 | 联系我们 | 加入我们 | 广告服务 | 投诉意见 | 网站导航
Copyright © 2000-2011 21tx.com, All Rights Reserved.
晨新科技 版权所有 Created by TXSite.net